political unit against 600,000 lives, well, grant had a more practical take. that was he believed and lincoln fully believe, that if there are two nations in the middle of the north american continent, isan , first war t would not be the lat one. they said that the reason the united states had not been th driven by the wars that had afflicted europe for centuries was that there was a single a country. once it makes to countries in north america, they will go at it again and again, so this wars would not be the last. in the long run, even at 600,000 lives, this could be a bargain and human suffering. >> >> okay, questions from the audience. we will start over here. yes, sir?l st >> [inaudible question] >> is there a microphone he cana use?phon >> i'm sorry, sir.